# Maze Trainers¶

Trainers are the central components of the Maze framework when it comes to optimizing policies using different RL algorithms. To be more specific, Trainers and TrainingRunners are responsible for the following tasks:

• manage the model types (actor networks, state-critics, state-action-critic, …),

• manage agent environment interaction and trajectory data generation,

• compute the loss (specific to the algorithm used),

• update the weights in order to decrease the loss and increase the performance,

• collect and log training statistics,

• manage model checkpoints and the training process (e.g., early stopping).

The figure below provides an overview of the currently supported Trainers.

This page gives a general (high-level) overview of the Trainers and corresponding algorithms supported by the Maze framework. For more details especially on the implementation please refer to the API documentation on Trainers. For more details on the training workflow and how to start trainings using the Hydra config system please refer to the training section.

## Supported Spaces¶

If not stated otherwise, Maze Trainers support dictionary spaces for both observations and actions.

If the environment you are working with does not yet interact via dictionary spaces simply wrap it with the built-in DictActionWrapper for actions and DictObservationWrapper for observations. In case of standard Gym environments just use the GymMazeEnv.

A2C is a synchronous version of the originally proposed Asynchronous Advantage Actor-Critic (A3C). As a policy gradient method it maintains a probabilistic policy, computing action selection probabilities, as well as a critic, predicting the state value function. By setting the number of rollout steps as well as the number of parallel environments one can control the batch size used for updating the policy and value function in each iteration.

Mnih, V., Badia, A. P., Mirza, M., Graves, A., Lillicrap, T., Harley, T., Silver, D., & Kavukcuoglu, K. (2016). Asynchronous methods for deep reinforcement learning. In International conference on machine learning (pp. 1928-1937).

Example

$maze-run -cn conf_train env.name=CartPole-v0 algorithm=a2c model=vector_obs critic=template_state  Algorithm Parameters | A2CAlgorithmConfig Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm/a2c.yaml) # @package algorithm # number of epochs to train n_epochs: 0 # number of updates per epoch epoch_length: 25 # number of steps used for early stopping patience: 15 # number of critic (value function) burn in epochs critic_burn_in_epochs: 0 # Number of steps taken for each rollout n_rollout_steps: 100 # learning rate lr: 0.0005 # discounting factor gamma: 0.98 # weight of policy loss policy_loss_coef: 1.0 # weight of value loss value_loss_coef: 0.5 # weight of entropy loss entropy_coef: 0.00025 # The maximum allowed gradient norm during training max_grad_norm: 0.0 # Either "cpu" or "cuda" device: cpu # bias vs variance trade of factor for Generalized Advantage Estimator (GAE) gae_lambda: 1.0 # Rollout evaluator (used for best model selection) rollout_evaluator: _target_: maze.train.trainers.common.evaluators.rollout_evaluator.RolloutEvaluator # Run evaluation in deterministic mode (argmax-policy) deterministic: false # Number of evaluation trials n_episodes: 8  Runner Parameters | ACRunner Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm_runner/a2c-dev.yaml) # @package runner _target_: "maze.train.trainers.common.actor_critic.actor_critic_runners.ACDevRunner" # model class used for policy and critic updates trainer_class: maze.train.trainers.a2c.a2c_trainer.A2C # Number of concurrently executed environments concurrency: 2 # Number of concurrent evaluation envs eval_concurrency: 2  Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm_runner/a2c-local.yaml) # @package runner _target_: "maze.train.trainers.common.actor_critic.actor_critic_runners.ACLocalRunner" # model class used for policy and critic updates trainer_class: maze.train.trainers.a2c.a2c_trainer.A2C # Number of concurrently executed environments concurrency: 8 # Number of concurrent evaluation envs eval_concurrency: 8  ## Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO)¶ The PPO algorithm belongs to the class of actor-critic style policy gradient methods. It optimizes a “surrogate” objective function adopted from trust region methods. As such, it alternates between generating trajectory data via agent rollouts from the environment and optimizing the objective function by means of a stochastic mini-batch gradient ascent. Schulman, J., Wolski, F., Dhariwal, P., Radford, A., & Klimov, O. (2017). Proximal policy optimization algorithms. arXiv preprint arXiv:1707.06347. Example $ maze-run -cn conf_train env.name=CartPole-v0 algorithm=ppo model=vector_obs critic=template_state


Algorithm Parameters | PPOAlgorithmConfig

Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm/ppo.yaml)

# @package algorithm

# number of epochs to train
n_epochs: 0

# number of updates per epoch
epoch_length: 25

# number of steps used for early stopping
patience: 15

# number of critic (value function) burn in epochs
critic_burn_in_epochs: 0

# Number of steps taken for each rollout
n_rollout_steps: 100

# learning rate
lr: 0.00025

# discounting factor
gamma: 0.98

# bias vs variance trade of factor for Generalized Advantage Estimator (GAE)
gae_lambda: 1.0

# weight of policy loss
policy_loss_coef: 1.0

# weight of value loss
value_loss_coef: 0.5

# weight of entropy loss
entropy_coef: 0.00025

# The maximum allowed gradient norm during training

# Either "cpu" or "cuda"
device: cpu

# The batch size used for policy and value updates
batch_size: 100

# Number of epochs for for policy and value optimization
n_optimization_epochs: 4

# Clipping parameter of surrogate loss
clip_range: 0.2

# Rollout evaluator (used for best model selection)
rollout_evaluator:
_target_: maze.train.trainers.common.evaluators.rollout_evaluator.RolloutEvaluator

# Run evaluation in deterministic mode (argmax-policy)
deterministic: false

# Number of evaluation trials
n_episodes: 8


Runner Parameters | ACRunner

Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm_runner/ppo-dev.yaml)

# @package runner
_target_: "maze.train.trainers.common.actor_critic.actor_critic_runners.ACDevRunner"

# model class used for policy and critic updates
trainer_class: maze.train.trainers.ppo.ppo_trainer.PPO

# Number of concurrently executed environments
concurrency: 2

# Number of concurrent evaluation envs
eval_concurrency: 2


Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm_runner/ppo-local.yaml)

# @package runner
_target_: "maze.train.trainers.common.actor_critic.actor_critic_runners.ACLocalRunner"

# model class used for policy and critic updates
trainer_class: maze.train.trainers.ppo.ppo_trainer.PPO

# Number of concurrently executed environments
concurrency: 8

# Number of concurrent evaluation envs
eval_concurrency: 8


## Importance Weighted Actor-Learner Architecture (IMPALA)¶

IMPALA is a RL algorithm able to scale to a very large number of machines. Multiple workers collect trajectories (sequences of states, actions and rewards), which are communicated to a learner responsible for updating the policy by utilizing stochastic mini-batch gradient decent and the proposed V-trace correction algorithm. By decoupling rollouts (interactions with the environment) and policy updates the algorithm is considered off-policy and asynchronous, making it very suitable for compute-intense environments.

Espeholt, L., Soyer, H., Munos, R., Simonyan, K., Mnih, V., Ward, T., Doron, Y., Firoiu, V., Harley, T., Dunning, I., Legg, S., & Kavukcuoglu, K. (2018). Impala: Scalable distributed deep-rl with importance weighted actor-learner architectures. arXiv preprint arXiv:1802.01561.

Example

$maze-run -cn conf_train env.name=CartPole-v0 algorithm=impala model=vector_obs critic=template_state  Algorithm Parameters | ImpalaAlgorithmConfig Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm/impala.yaml) # @package algorithm # Common Actor critic parameters # number of epochs to train n_epochs: 0 # number of updates per epoch epoch_length: 25 # number of steps used for early stopping patience: 15 # number of critic (value function) burn in epochs critic_burn_in_epochs: 0 # number of rolloutstep of each epoch substep n_rollout_steps: 100 # learning rate lr: 0.0005 # discount factor gamma: 0.98 # coefficient of the policy used in the loss calculation policy_loss_coef: 1.0 # coefficient of the value used in the loss calculation value_loss_coef: 0.5 # coefficient of the entropy used in the loss calculation entropy_coef: 0.01 # max grad norm for gradient clipping, ignored if value==0 max_grad_norm: 0 # Device of the learner (either cpu or cuda) # Note that the actors collecting rollouts are always run on CPU. device: "cpu" # Impala specific events ---------------------- # this factor multiplied by the actor_batch_size gives the size of the queue for # the agents output collected by the learner. Therefor if the all rollouts computed can be at most # (queue_out_of_sync_factor + num_agents/actor_batch_size) out of sync with learner policy queue_out_of_sync_factor: 1 # number of actors to combine to one batch actors_batch_size: 8 # number of actors to be run num_actors: 8 # A scalar float32 tensor with the clipping threshold for importance weights # (rho) when calculating the baseline targets (vs). rho^bar in the paper. If None, no clipping is applied. vtrace_clip_rho_threshold: 1.0 # A scalar float32 tensor with the clipping threshold on rho_s in # \rho_s \delta log \pi(a|x) (r + \gamma v_{s+1} - V(x_sfrom_importance_weights)). If None, no clipping is # applied. vtrace_clip_pg_rho_threshold: 1.0 # Rollout evaluator (used for best model selection) rollout_evaluator: _target_: maze.train.trainers.common.evaluators.rollout_evaluator.RolloutEvaluator # Run evaluation in deterministic mode (argmax-policy) deterministic: false # Number of evaluation trials n_episodes: 8  Runner Parameters | ImpalaRunner Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm_runner/impala-dev.yaml) # @package runner _target_: "maze.train.trainers.impala.impala_runners.ImpalaDevRunner" # Number of concurrent evaluation envs eval_concurrency: 2  Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm_runner/impala-local.yaml) # @package runner _target_: "maze.train.trainers.impala.impala_runners.ImpalaLocalRunner" # type of startmethod used for multiprocessing: 'forkserver', 'spawn', 'fork', 'dummy' start_method: forkserver # Number of concurrent evaluation envs eval_concurrency: 8  ## Soft Actor-Critic (SAC)¶ An off-policy actor-critic algorithm based on the maximum entropy reinforcement learning framework with the goal of maximizing expected reward while at the same time maximizing entropy. SAC exhibits high sample efficiency, is stable across different random seeds, and achieves competitive performance especially for continuous control tasks. In contrast to A2C, PPO and IMPALA it utilizes a stochastic state-action critic. Haarnoja, T., Zhou, A., Abbeel, P., Levine, S. (2018). Soft Actor-Critic: Off-Policy Maximum Entropy Deep Reinforcement Learning with a Stochastic Actor. https://arxiv.org/abs/1801.01290 Example $ maze-run -cn conf_train env.name=Pendulum-v0 algorithm=sac model=vector_obs critic=template_state_action


Algorithm Parameters | SACAlgorithmConfig

Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm/sac.yaml)

# @package algorithm

# Number of steps taken for each rollout
n_rollout_steps: 1

# Learning rate
lr: 0.001

# The entropy coefficient to use in the loss computation (called alpha in org paper)
entropy_coef: 0.2

# Discounting factor
gamma: 0.99

# The maximum allowed gradient norm during training

# Number of actors to combine to one batch
batch_size: 100

# Number of batches to update on in each iteration
num_batches_per_iter: 1

# Number of actors to be run
num_actors: 1

# Parameter weighting the soft update of the target network
tau: 0.005

# Specify in what intervals to update the target networks
target_update_interval: 1

# Either "cpu" or "cuda"
device: cpu

# Specify whether to learn the entropy coefficient or rather use the default one (entropy_coef) [called alpha in paper]
entropy_tuning: true

# Specify an optional multiplier for the target entropy. This value is multiplied with the default target entropy
# computation (this is called alpha tuning in the org paper):
#   discrete spaces: target_entropy = target_entropy_multiplier * ( - 0.98 * (-log (1 / |A|))
#   continues spaces: target_entropy = target_entropy_multiplier * (- dim(A)) (e.g., -6 for HalfCheetah-v1)
target_entropy_multiplier: 1.0

# Learning rate for entropy tuning
entropy_coef_lr: 0.0007

# The size of the replay buffer
replay_buffer_size: 1000000

# The initial buffer size, where transaction are sampled with the initial sampling policy
initial_buffer_size: 10000

# The policy used to initially fill the replay buffer
initial_sampling_policy:
_target_: maze.core.agent.random_policy.RandomPolicy

# Number of rollouts collected from the actor in each iteration
rollouts_per_iteration: 1

# Specify whether all computed rollouts should be split into transitions before processing them
split_rollouts_into_transitions: true

# Number of epochs to train
n_epochs: 0

# Number of updates per epoch
epoch_length: 100

# Number of steps used for early stopping
patience: 50

# Rollout evaluator (used for best model selection)
rollout_evaluator:
_target_: maze.train.trainers.common.evaluators.rollout_evaluator.RolloutEvaluator

# Run evaluation in deterministic mode (argmax-policy)
deterministic: false

# Number of evaluation trials
n_episodes: 8


Runner Parameters | SACRunner

Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm_runner/sac-dev.yaml)

# @package runner
_target_: "maze.train.trainers.sac.sac_runners.SACDevRunner"

# Number of concurrent evaluation envs
eval_concurrency: 2


Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm_runner/sac-local.yaml)

# @package runner
_target_: "maze.train.trainers.sac.sac_runners.SACDevRunner"

# Number of concurrent evaluation envs
eval_concurrency: 8


## Behavioural Cloning (BC)¶

Behavioural cloning is a simple imitation learning algorithm, that infers the behaviour of a “hidden” policy by imitating the actions produced for a given observation in a supervised learning setting. As such, it requires a set of training (example) trajectories collected prior to training.

Hussein, A., Gaber, M. M., Elyan, E., & Jayne, C. (2017). Imitation learning: A survey of learning methods. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 50(2), 1-35.

Algorithm Parameters | BCAlgorithmConfig

Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm_runner/bc.yaml)

# @package algorithm

# Number of epochs to train for
n_epochs: 1000

# Optimizer used to update the policy
optimizer:
lr: 0.001

# Device to train on
device: cuda

# Batch size
batch_size: 100

# Number of iterations after which to run evaluation (in addition to evaluations at the end of
# each epoch, which are run automatically). If set to None, evaluations will run on epoch end only.
eval_every_k_iterations: 500

# Percentage of the data used for validation.
validation_percentage: 20

# Number of episodes to run during each evaluation rollout (set to 0 to evaluate using validation only)
n_eval_episodes: 8

# Entropy coefficient for policy optimization.
entropy_coef: 0.0


Runner Parameters | BCRunner

Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm_runner/bc-dev.yaml)

# @package runner
_target_: maze.train.trainers.imitation.bc_runners.BCDevRunner

# Number of concurrent evaluation envs
eval_concurrency: 1

# Specify the Dataset class used to load the trajectory data for training
dataset:
_target_: maze.core.trajectory_recording.datasets.in_memory_dataset.InMemoryDataset
dir_or_file: trajectory_data
n_workers: 1


Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm_runner/bc-local.yaml)

# @package runner
_target_: maze.train.trainers.imitation.bc_runners.BCLocalRunner

# Number of concurrent evaluation envs
eval_concurrency: 8

# Specify the Dataset class used to load the trajectory data for training
dataset:
_target_: maze.core.trajectory_recording.datasets.in_memory_dataset.InMemoryDataset
dir_or_file: trajectory_data
n_workers: 5


## Evolutionary Strategies (ES)¶

Evolutionary strategies is a black box optimization algorithm that utilizes direct policy search and can be very efficiently parallelized. Advantages of this methods include being invariant to action frequencies as well as delayed rewards. Further, it shows tolerance for extremely long time horizons, since it does need to compute or approximate a temporally discounted value function. However, it is considered less sample efficient then actual RL algorithms.

Salimans, T., Ho, J., Chen, X., Sidor, S., & Sutskever, I. (2017). Evolution strategies as a scalable alternative to reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.03864.

Example

\$ maze-run -cn conf_train env.name=CartPole-v0 algorithm=es model=vector_obs


Algorithm Parameters | ESAlgorithmConfig

Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm_runner/es.yaml)

# @package algorithm

# Minimum number of episode rollouts per training iteration (=epoch)
n_rollouts_per_update: 10

# Minimum number of cumulative env steps per training iteration (=epoch).
# The training iteration is only finished, once the given number of episodes
# AND the given number of steps has been reached. One of the two parameters
# can be set to 0.
n_timesteps_per_update: 0

# The number of epochs to train before termination. Pass 0 to train indefinitely
n_epochs: 0

# Limit the episode rollouts to a maximum number of steps. Set to 0 to disable this option.
max_steps: 0

# The optimizer to use to update the policy based on the sampled gradient.
optimizer:
step_size: 0.01

# L2 weight regularization coefficient.
l2_penalty: 0.005

# The scaling factor of the random noise applied during training.
noise_stddev: 0.02


Runner Parameters | ESMasterRunner

Default parameters (maze/conf/algorithm_runner/es-dev.yaml)

# @package runner
_target_: "maze.train.trainers.es.ESDevRunner"

# Fixed number of evaluation runs per epoch.
n_eval_rollouts: 10

# Number of float values in the deterministically generated pseudo-random table
shared_noise_table_size: 100000000


## Maze RLlib Trainer¶

Finally, the Maze framework also contains an RLlib trainer class. This special class of trainers wraps all necessary and convenient Maze components into RLlib compatible objects such that Ray-RLlib can be reused to train Maze policies and critics. This enables us to train Maze Models with Maze action distributions in Maze environments with almost all RLlib algorithms.

RLlib algorithms are currently not supported by RunContext.

Example and Details: Maze RLlib Runner